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U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Transportation Icon United States Department of Transportation United States Department of Transportation
FHWA Highway Safety Programs

Model Inventory of Roadway Elements (MIRE)

MIRE is a recommended listing of roadway characteristic and traffic inventory elements critical to safety management. MIRE is a guide to help transportation agencies improve their roadway and traffic data inventories. It was developed to support a State's advanced safety analyses such as presented in the Highway Safety Manual.

About MIRE

Safe Systems Start with Quality Data

Good data and effective analysis are key to making sound decisions on the safety, design, and operation of roadways. MIRE provides a comprehensive list of roadway and traffic data elements and accompanying data dictionary that serves as a robust inventory model to support data-driven safety decision making.

The 2012 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) legislation called for improved and more robust safety data for better safety analysis to support the development of States’ Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSPs) and Highway Safety Improvement Programs (HSIPs). The Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act), signed in 2015, continued the State safety data system requirements established in MAP-21.

MIRE is a recommended guideline of data elements that States could collect to develop a comprehensive safety data system (crash, roadway, and traffic data). MIRE helps States meet the data requirements common among analytical tools, including:


MIRE 2.0

FHWA published the initial MIRE Report in 2007 and released MIRE 1.0 with more than 200 elements in 2010. In 2018, FHWA released MIRE 2.0 as a refinement. 

Since the release of MIRE 1.0 in 2010, safety analysis techniques have advanced, and both the safety and data communities have developed an increased awareness of the importance of good quality data in safety analysis. Additionally, new Federal requirements for data have been issued, including the MIRE Fundamental Data Elements (FDE) and the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) All Road Network of Linear Referenced Data (ARNOLD). For example, the HPMS ARNOLD requirement expanded States’ obligation to include all public roads into their linear referencing system (LRS) base map. This LRS requirement provides at least one means to locate MIRE data elements geospatially.

In response to these changes, FHWA initiated a reassessment of MIRE 1.0 that resulted in MIRE 2.0. The MIRE 2.0 update includes a revised format to reflect:

  • The transition from isolated datasets to enterprise database environments among agencies;
  • Alignment with other Federal datasets and requirements across FHWA; and
  • Updates to operational and design elements that have become more widely implemented.

MIRE 2.0 also serves as a resource for meeting the above Federal safety data requirements.


MIRE Fundamental Data Elements

MAP-21 and the FAST Act required the Secretary to establish a subset of the MIRE that are useful for the inventory of roadway safety and ensure that States adopt and use the subset to improve data collection. [23 U.S.C. 148(f)(2)]. FHWA established a subset of the MIRE as part of the HSIP Final Rule changes to 23 CFR Part 924, effective April 14, 2016. This MIRE subset is referred to as the fundamental data elements (FDEs).

The FDEs are categorized by roadway functional classification and pavement type (non-local paved, local paved and unpaved roads). They are further refined into subcategories of data elements for roadway segments, intersections, and interchanges. The MIRE FDE provide enough data to enable jurisdictions to analyze crash experience on their roadway networks relative to the expected average crash frequency given the roadway and traffic characteristics at each location.

FHWA tiered the required FDEs for each category:

Road Category Number of Required MIRE-
FDE Elements

Non-local Paved Roads

Functional classifications 1-6


Local Paved Roads

Functional classification 7


Unpaved Roads

Any functional classification



Non-Local Paved Roads

Note AADT = Annual Average daily Traffic

Roadway Segment
AADT Federal Aid/Route Type Route Number
AADT Year Functional Class Rural/Urban Designation
Access Control Median Type Segment Identifier
Begin Point Segment Descriptor Number of Through Lanes Segment Length
End Point Segment Descriptor One/Two-Way Operations Surface Type

Direction of Inventory

Route/Street Name Type of Governmental Ownership
AADT [for each intersecting road] Intersection/Junction Traffic Control Unique Approach Identifier
AADT Year [for each intersecting road] Location Identifier for Road 1 Crossing Point Unique Junction Identifier
Intersection/Junction Geometry Location Identifier for Road 2 Crossing Point  
Functional Class Ramp AADT Type of Governmental Ownership
Interchange Type Ramp Length Unique Interchange Identifier
Location Identifier for Roadway Beginning Ramp Terminal Roadway Type at Beginning Ramp Terminal Year of Ramp AADT
Location Identifier for Roadway Ending Ramp Terminal Roadway Type at Ending Ramp Terminal  


Local Paved Roads

Roadway Segment
Annual Average Daily Traffic Functional Class Segment Identifier
Begin Point Segment Descriptor Number of Through Lanes Surface Type
End Point Segment Descriptor Rural/Urban Designation Type of Governmental Ownership


Unpaved Roads

Roadway Segment
Begin Point Segment Descriptor Functional Class Type of Governmental Ownership
End Point Segment Descriptor Segment Identifier  







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Contact Us

Dr. Carol Tan
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Safety Research and Development

Sarah Weissman Pascual
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Safety Programs

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