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U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Transportation Icon United States Department of Transportation United States Department of Transportation
FHWA Highway Safety Programs

Glossary

4E’s – The four disciplines that contribute to transportation safety: engineering, enforcement, education, and emergency medical services (or emergency response).

AASHTO – American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.

CMAQ – Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Program.

CMV – Commercial Motor Vehicles.

CODES – Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System.

Countermeasure – A strategy designed to address a specific safety problem defined by crash data. For example, to prevent roadway departure crashes, rumble strips are often installed along roadways to alert drivers when they are leaving the traveled way.

CMF – Crash Modification Factor.

CTSP – Community Traffic Safety Program.

CVSP – Commercial Vehicle Safety Plan.

DOT – Department of Transportation.

DPS – Department of Public Safety.

Emphasis Area – Emphasis areas are usually divided into 22 categories based on extensive research by the AASHTO and National Cooperative Highway Research Program in their Strategic Highway Safety Plan (NCHRP). These include infrastructure (e.g., utility pole collisions), crash types (e.g., head–on collisions, lane departures), behavior (e.g., alcohol, speeding, occupant protection), vehicle types (e.g., bicycles, motorcycles, heavy trucks), and at risk populations (e.g., young drivers, older drivers). Implementation guides have been developed for these emphasis areas and are available as 22 volumes of the NCHRP Report 500.

FARS – Fatality Analysis Reporting System. National database of fatal crashes since 1975 that allows detailed analysis of the driver, vehicle, involved persons, and crash.

FHWA – Federal Highway Administration.

FMCSA – Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. Focuses on reducing crashes involving large trucks and buses.

GES – General Estimates System.

GHSA – Governors Highway Safety Association.

HRRRP – High-Risk Rural Roads Program.

HPMS – Highway Performance Monitoring System.

HSIP – Highway Safety Improvement Program.

HSM – Highway Safety Manual.

HSP – Highway Safety Plan.

IPM – Implementation Process Model.

IT – Information Technology.

LRTP – Long–Range Transportation Plan.

LTAP – Local Technical Assistance Program.

MCMIS – Motor Carrier Management Information System.

MCSAP – Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program.

MOU – Memorandum of Understanding.

MPO – Metropolitan Planning Organization. Required in all metropolitan areas with a population of 50,000 or more, these agencies conduct regional transportation and other planning activities and are required to develop the region’s Metropolitan Transportation Plan.

NEMSIS – National Emergency Medical Services Information System.

NHTSA – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Provides National and State research and analysis on all aspects of transportation safety and funds many behavioral efforts. RHGX – Railway–Highway Grade Crossing Program.

RSA – Road Safety Audit. A formal safety performance examination of a roadway or intersection by an independent, multidisciplinary audit team to identify the elements of the road that present safety concerns and opportunities for mitigation.

SAFETEA–LU – Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act – A Legacy for Users.

SHSO – State Highway Safety Office.

SHSP – Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Required by SAFETEA–LU, these State transportation safety plans include analysis of crash data to identify emphasis areas where a reduction in fatal and injury crashes is needed, as well as strategies for improvement. Plans must be developed via the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders representing the 4E’s of safety.

STIP – State Transportation Improvement Program. Identifies projects from the State’s long–range transportation plan that are funded and will be implemented in the short term.

TIP – Transportation Improvement Program. Identifies funded projects to be implemented in the short term from the MPOs regional transportation plan.

Traffic Records – System containing crash report data to enable safety problem identification.

TRCC – Traffic Records Coordinating Committee.

TSP – Transportation Safety Planning.

UPWP – Unified Planning Work Program.

VIN – Vehicle Identification Number.

VMT – Vehicle Miles Traveled.