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FHWA Highway Safety Programs

References

1. FHWA, "Proven Safety Countermeasures" web page. Available at: https://highways.dot.gov/safety/proven-safety-countermeasures 

2. FHWA "Proven Safety Countermeasures, 'Road Diet' (Roadway Reconfiguration)," FHWA-SA-12-013 (Washington, DC: 2012). Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safety/other/road-diets 

3. Stamatiadis, N et al. "Guidelines for Road Diet Conversions." 2011. Available at: http://nacto.org/docs/usdg/guidelines_for_road_diet_conversion_stamatiadis.pdf 

4. Rosales, J., Road Diet Handbook: Setting Trends for Livable Streets, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, 2006. 

5. Rosales, 2006. 

6. Harwood, D.W. NCHRP 282: Multilane Design Alternatives for Improving Suburban Highways, (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, March 1986).

7. Knapp, K., T. Welch, J. Witmer. Converting Four-Lane Undivided Roadways to a Three-Lane Cross Section: Factors to Consider

8. Nemeth, Z.A., "Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes: State-of-the-Art Overview and Implementation Guide." Transportation Research Record 681 (1978): 62-69. 

9. Pawlovich, M., W. Li, A. Carriquiry, and T. Welch, Iowa's Experience with "Road Diet" Measures: Impacts on Crash Frequencies and Crash Rates Assessed Following a Bayesian Approach, 2005. 

10. Harkey, D., R. Srinivasan, J. Baek, NCHRP 617: Accident Modification Factors for Traffic Engineering and ITS Improvements. (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 2008). Available at: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_617.pdf 

11. FHWA "Proven Safety Countermeasures, 'Road Diet' (Roadway Reconfiguration)," FHWA-SA-12-013 (Washington, DC: 2012). Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safety/other/road-diets

12. FHWA "Evaluation of Lane Reduction 'Road Diet' Measures on Crashes." FHWA Report No. FHWA-HRT-10-053. (Washington, D.C: 2010)

13. Stout, Thomas B., Before and After Study of Some Impacts of 4-Lane to 3-Lane Roadway Conversions. March 2005.

14. FHWA, Pedestrian Facilities Users Guide--Providing Safety and Mobility. FHWA-RD-01-102 (Washington, DC: 2001). Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/01102/01102.pdf

15. FHWA, Safety Effects of Marked vs. Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations: Executive Summary and Recommended Guidelines, FHWA-RD-01-075 (Washington, DC: 2001).

16. Garder P, "Pedestrian safety at traffic signals: a study carried out with the help of a traffic conflicts technique." Accident Analysis and Prevention 21: 435–444. 

17. FHWA Office of Planning, Environment, and Realty. "Livability Initiative" web page. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/livability/ 

18. FHWA Proven Safety Countermeasures, Median and Pedestrian Crossing Islands in Urban and Suburban Areas, Washington, DC, 2012. 

19. Welch, T. The Conversion of Four Lane Undivided Urban Roadways to Three Lane Facilities, 1999. 

20. Knapp, K., K. Giese, Guidelines for the Conversion of Urban Four-Lane Undivided Roadways to Three-Lane Two-Way Left-Turn Lane Facilities, 2001.

21. FHWA, "Context Sensitive Solutions" web page. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/what.cfm 

22. FHWA, "Principles of Context Sensitive Design" web page. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/qualities.cfm 

23. Knapp, Welch, and Witmer, 1999. 

24. Knapp, Welch, and Witmer, 1999. 

25. Knapp and Giese, 2001, p. 66. 

26. Gates, T., et al., The Safety and Operational Effects of "Road Diet" Conversions in Minnesota, 2007, pp. 65-66. 

27. City of Orlando, Edgewater Drive Before & After Re-Striping Results, 2002, p. 2.

28. Gates et al., 2007, pp. 69. 

29. Gates et al., 2007, pp. 67. 

30. Chu, X. and M. Baltes, "Measuring Pedestrian Quality of Service of Midblock Street Crossings," Paper No. 03-5045, Transportation Research Record 1828 (2004): 89-97. 

31. McLeod, D.S. "Multimodal Arterial Level of Service," Transportation Research Circular E-C018 (2000): 221-233. 

32. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Highway Capacity Manual (Washington, D.C.: 2010), p. 16-7. 

33. Knapp and Giese, 2001, p. 39. 

34. Knapp and Giese, 2001, p. 51. 

35. Stamatiadis et al., 2011, p. 29. 

36. Gates, T., D. Noyce, V. Talada, L. Hill, Safety and Operational Characteristics of Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes, 2006, p. 25. 

37. Knapp, K., K. Giese, and W. Lee, Urban Four-Lane Undivided to Three-Lane Roadway Conversion Guidelines, 2003.

38. Knapp, Welch, and Witmer, 1999.

39. Knapp, Welch, and Witmer, 1999. 

40. Knapp, Giese, and Lee, 2003. 

41. The League of American Bicyclists, "Road Diets Now Proven Safety Measure; Q&A with FHWA Associate Administrator Furst," News from the League, February 6, 2012. Available at: The League of American Bicyclists | League of American Bicyclists (bikeleague.org) 

42. Rosales, 2006. 

43. New York State Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations, "Complete Streets Fact Sheet," New York, 2012. 

44. New York State Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations, "Complete Streets Fact Sheet 2.0," New York, 2014. 

45. Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, Regional Road Diet Analysis Feasibility Assessment, 2008. 

46. Tan, C., "Going on a Road Diet," Public Roads, Sept/Oct 2011. 

47. In-person meeting with Tracie Leix, P.E., Safety Programs Unit Manager, Michigan Department of Transportation. March 20, 2013. 

48. Interview with Christopher Zull, Traffic Safety Manager, and Carissa McQuiston, Traffic Engineer, City of Grand Rapids, Michigan, on March 20, 2013. 

49. Interview with Andrew Kilpatrick, Transportation Engineer, City of Lansing, Michigan, March 22, 2013. 

50. Research team interview with Derek Bradshaw and Jason Nordberg, Genesee County Metropolitan Planning Commission, Michigan. March 21, 2013. 

51. FHWA, Flexibility in Highway Design, (Washington, DC: 2012) 

52. AASHTO, A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design, 1st Edition, 2004. 

53. FHWA, "Memorandum: Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Design Flexibility," August 20, 2013. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/guidance/design_guidance/design_flexibility.cfm 

54. New Jersey Department of Transportation and Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Smart Transportation Guidebook: Planning and Designing Highways and Streets that Support Sustainable and Livable Communities, 2008. Available at http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/community/mobility/pdf/smarttransportationguidebook2008.pdf 

55. AASHTO, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 6th Edition, 2011. 

56. Gattis, J.L. et al., NCHRP Report 659: Guide for the Geometric Design of Driveways, (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 2012). 

57. FHWA, User's Guide to Positive Guidance, 3rd Edition, (Washington, DC: 1990). 

58. Campbell, J., et al, NCHRP Report 600: Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems, Second Edition, (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 2012). 

59. Morena, D., W.S. Wainwright, and F. Ranck, "Older Drivers at a Crossroads," Public Roads, FHWA-HRT-2007-002, Vol. 70, No. 4, January/February 2007. 

60. AASHTO, Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 4th Edition, 2012.

61. FHWA, "Memorandum: Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Design Flexibility," August 20, 2013. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/guidance/design_guidance/design_flexibility.cfm 

62. FHWA, Speed Concepts: Informational Guide, FHWA-SA-10-001 (Washington, D.C.: 2009). 

63. FHWA, "Access Management in the Vicinity of Intersections," Washington, DC. 2010. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/sites/fhwa.dot.gov/files/2022-06/fhwasa10002.pdf 

64. AASHTO, Guide for High-Occupancy (HOV) Facilities, 2004.

65. Texas Department of Transportation, Roadway Design Manual, Section 2.6, 2013. Available at http://onlinemanuals.txdot.gov/txdotmanuals/rdw/cross_sectional_elements.htm#BGBGIBAE 

66. AASHTO, Highway Drainage Guidelines, 4th Edition, 2007. 

67. AASHTO, Model Drainage Manual, 3rd Edition, 2005. 

68. AASHTO, Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities, 1st Edition, 2004. 

69. The most recent PROWAG is in draft form as of July 2014. 

70. AASHTO, Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 4th Edition, 2012.

71. AASTHO, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2011. 

72. Texas Transportation Institute, TCRP Report 19: Guidelines for the Location and Design of Bus Stops, (Transportation Research Board of the National Academies: Washington, D.C., 1996). 

73. Gattis, et al., 2012. 

74. Harwood, D. W., NCHRP Report 282: Multilane Design Alternatives for Improving Suburban Highways (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 1986).

75. Harwood, D.W., NCHRP Report 330: Effective Utilization of Street Width on Urban Arterials, (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 1990). 

76. Fitzpatrick, K. et al., TCRP Report 112/NCHRP Report 562: Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings, (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 2006). 

77. AASHTO, Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities, 1st Edition, 2004. 

78. Bartlett, J., B. Graves, and T. Redmon, "Proven Countermeasures for Pedestrian Safety," Public Roads, FHWA-HRT-12-003, Vol. 75, No. 5, March/April 2012. 

79. Gattis et al., 2012. 

80. FHWA, Access Management in the Vicinity of Intersections – Technical Summary, FHWA-SA-10-002 (Washington, DC: 2002). 

81. City of Seattle, WA. 

82. Institute of Transportation Engineers, "Before-and-After Study," Technical Brief, (Washington DC, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 2009).

83. Hauer, E., D.W. Harwood, F.M. Council, and M.S. Griffith, Estimating Safety by the Empirical Bayes Method: A Tutorial, 2002. Available at: http://pubsindex.trb.org/document/view/default.asp?lbid=726704

84. AASHTO, Highway Safety Manual, 1st Edition, 2010. 

85. Hauer, E., Observational Before – After Studies in Road Safety. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK: 1997). 

86. AASHTO, An Introduction to the Highway Safety Manual, 2010.

87. AASHTO, Highway Safety Manual, 1st Edition, 2010. 

88. FHWA, 1989. 

89. Porter, R.J., E.T. Donnell, and J.M. Mason, "Geometric Design, Speed, and Safety," Transportation Research Record 2309 (2012): 39-47.

90. Rosales, 2006. 

91. Harwood, 1986. 

92. FHWA, "Context Sensitive Solutions" web page. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/what.cfm 

93. FHWA, "Proven Safety Countermeasures" web page. Available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safety/other/proven-safety-countermeasures