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FHWA Highway Safety Programs

Appendix B: Tools & Resources

Standards/Guidelines to Address Safety on Local Roads

  1. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (Green Book), American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: https://bookstore.transportation.org/item_details.aspx?ID=110
  2. ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG), United States Access Board: https://www.access-board.gov/ada/
  3. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), Federal Highway Administration: http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/ser-pubs.htm

Resources to Address Safety on Rural Roads

  1. Local Rural Road Owner's Manual, Federal Highway Administration: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safety/local-rural/training-tools-guidance-and-countermeasures-locals-practitioners
  2. Peer-to-Peer Programhttps://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safety/about-safety/local-and-rural-roads-safety-peer-peer-program
  3. Safety Resource CD: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safety/other/local-rural/local-roads-safety-resource-cd
  4. Federal Highway Administration, Road Safety Audits Guidelines (FHWA-SA-06-06): https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safety/data-analysis-tools/rsa/fhwa-road-safety-audit-guidelines
  5. RSA Toolkit DVD: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/rsa/resources/toolkitcd/
  6. CMF Clearinghouse, Federal Highway Administration: http://www.cmfclearinghouse.org
  7. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies, A Synthesis of Highway Practice (NCHRP Synthesis 321), National Cooperative Highway Research Program: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_syn_321.pdf
  8. Rural Highway Safety Clearinghouse, University of Minnesota: http://www.ruralsafety.umn.edu/clearinghouse/topics/planning/
  9. Rural Areas and Small Towns, National Complete Streets Coalition: https://smartgrowthamerica.org/implementing-complete-streets-small-towns-rural-communities/

Resources to Address Safety of Pedestrians and Bicyclists on Rural Roads

  1. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center - Pedestrian and Bicyclists Crash Analysis Tool: http://www.walkinginfo.org/facts/pbcat/
  2. Bicyclinginfo.org: http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/
  3. Bikeability Checklist: http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/library/details.cfm?id=3
  4. BIKESAFE Bicycle Countermeasure Selection System: http://www.pedbikesafe.org/bikesafe/
  5. Walkinginfo.org: http://www.walkinginfo.org/
  6. Walkability Checklisthttp://www.walkinginfo.org/library/details.cfm?id=12
  7. PEDSAFE Pedestrian Countermeasure Selection Systemhttp://www.walkinginfo.org/pedsafe/

FHWA

  1. Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safety/pedestrian-bicyclist
  2. A Resident's Guide for Creating Safe and Walkable Communities (FHWA-SA-07-016), Federal Highway Administration: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safety/pedestrian-bicyclist/residents-guide-creating-safer-communities-walking-and-biking
  3. How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan (FHWA-SA-05-12), Federal Highway Administration: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/sites/fhwa.dot.gov/files/2022-06/fhwasa0512.pdf
  4. Pedestrian and Bicycle Program, Federal Highway Administration: https://wwww.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/
  5. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part I, A Review of Existing Guidelines, Federal Highway Administration: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/publications/sidewalks/
  6. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access Part II, Best Practices Guide, Federal Highway Administration: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/publications/sidewalk2/
  7. Pedestrian Road Safety Audit Guidelines and Prompt Lists (FHWA-SA-07-007)Federal Highway Administration: https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/42593
  8. Accessible Sidewalks and Street Crossings - An Informational Guide (FHWA-SA-03-019), Federal Highway Administration: http://www.bikewalk.org/pdfs/sopada_fhwa.pdf
  9. Safety Effects of Marked Versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations (FHWA-HRT-04-100), Federal Highway Administration: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/04100/
  10. Pedestrian and Bicyclist Intersection Safety Indices (FHWA-HRT-06-125), Federal Highway Administration: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/pedbike/06125/06125.pdf

AASHTO

  1. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: https://bookstore.transportation.org/Item_details.aspx?id=104
  2. Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials: https://bookstore.transportation.org/item_details.aspx?id=119

NCHRP

  1. A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Bicycles (NCHRP Report 500), National Cooperative Highway Research Program: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_500v18.pdf
  2. Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings (NCHRP Report 562), National Cooperative Highway Research Program: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_562.pdf

Other Sources

  1. Bicycle Level of Service/Bicycle Compatibility Index Online Calculator, League of Illinois Bicyclists: https://rideillinois.org/advocacy/bikeped-level-of-service-measures-and-calculators/
  2. Smart Cycling: Traffic Skills 101, League of American Bicyclists: https://bikeleague.org/ridesmart/find-take-class/
  3. Worksite walkability: audit tool. Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/walkability/audit_tool.htm
  4. Vermont Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Planning and Design Manual, Vermont Agency of Transportation: https://fpr.vermont.gov/sites/fpr/files/doc_library/VTrains-Pedestrian-and-Bicycle-Facility-Design-Manual.pdf

Resources to Address Speed on Rural Roads

  1. The Massachusetts DOT's Project Development and Design Guide: http://www.mhd.state.ma.us/default.asp?pgid=content/designguide&sid=about
  2. When Main Street is a State Highway, Maryland State Highway Administration: http://www.sha.maryland.gov/ohd/MainStreet.pdf
  3. Pennsylvania's Traffic Calming Handbook:http://www.dot.state.pa.us/Internet/pdHwyIntHS.nsf/HomePageTrafficCalming?OpenForm&BaseTarget=main
  4. Evaluation of Gateway and Low-Cost Traffic-Calming Treatments for Major Routes in Small, Rural Communities: http://www.ctre.iastate.edu/reports/traffic-calming-rural.pdf
  5. Gorrill, Darlene. Traffic Calming for High-Speed Rural Roadways. Minnesota Department of Transportation, June 2008.: http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/TRS0801.pdf
  6. Tech Brief: Traffic Calming on Main Roads Through Rural Communities (FHWA-HRT-08-067), Federal Highway Administration: http://www.tfhrc.gov/safety/pubs/08067/08067.pdf

Resources to Address Road User Behaviors on Rural Roads

  1. Effectiveness of Behavioral Highway Safety Countermeasures (NCHRP Report 622), National Cooperative Highway Research Program: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_622.pdf

Resources to Address the Safety of Horse-drawn Vehicles

  1. Horse and Buggy Driver's Manual, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation: ftp://ftp.dot.state.pa.us/public/PubsForms/Publications/PUB%20632.pdf
  2. Amish Buggy Safety Program, Ohio Department of Transportation: http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/TransSysDev/ProgramMgt/CapitalPrograms/Pages/AmishBuggy.aspx