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Warning Sign Legends for Emergency Incidents

Project Information

Project ID: 
Project Status: 
Start Date: 
Tuesday, September 17, 2013
End Date: 
Tuesday, October 7, 2014
FHWA Program: 
FHWA Subprogram: 
Human Factors Analytics
FHWA Activity: 
Human Factors, Speed Management
FHWA Topics: 
Safety--Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety; Safety--Visibility and Retroflectivity
TRT Terms: 
Traffic Control; Traffic Incident Management; Signals; Signs; Research; Safety
FHWA Discipline: 
Operations, Safety, Civil Rights, Design, Program and Management Analysis
TRB Subject Area: 
Highways, Pedestrians and Bicyclists, Policy, Research, Safety and Human Factors, Education and Training, Law, Operations and Traffic Management, Security and Emergencies, Vehicles and Equipment

Contact Information

First Name: 
Last Name: 
(202) 493-3990
Email Address: 
Human Factors Team
Office of Safety Research and Development
Office Code: 

Project Details

Project Description: 

This project will conduct simulation and field evaluations using motorists and first responders as to the effectiveness of various text and symbol sign designs deployed by first responders such as fire, emergency medical services, and police for the purpose of Traffic Incident management and in the prevention of secondary crashes.


To provide empirical evidence of the effectiveness of various types of signs deployed by first responders for Temporary Traffic Management.  

Partners and Other Sponsor/Managing/Performing Organizations: 
Organization Role: 
Partner: Technical


Deliverable Name: 
Warning Sign Legends for Emergency Incidents
Deliverable Type: 
Technical report
Deliverable Description: 
The objective of the Transportation Pooled Fund Program’s Traffic Control Device (TCD) Consortium is to assemble a consortium of regional, State, local entities, appropriate organizations, and the Federal Highway Administration to: 1) Establish a systematic procedure to select, test, and evaluate approaches to novel TCD concepts as well as incorporation of results into the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). 2) Select novel TCD approaches to test and evaluate. 3) Determine methods of evaluation for novel TCD approaches. 4) Initiate and monitor projects intended to address evaluation of the novel TCDs. 5) Disseminate results. 6) Assist MUTCD incorporation and implementation of results. This report documents efforts to identify and evaluate general message options for Traffic Incident Management (TIM) TCDs, such as advance warning and guide signs. Multiple methods were used to identify message options. Data from this project show the extent that select messages from the MUTCD, the European Union, and a selection of novel messages can be associated with traffic incidents and proper driver actions. Information from this study may be of interest to local, regional, State, and Federal agencies that regulate and provide guidance for TIM. Signing engineers, other researchers, practitioners, and decision makers who are concerned about providing clear messages to drivers who are approaching a traffic incident may also be interested in this study.