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U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Transportation Icon United States Department of Transportation United States Department of Transportation

Driver Yielding with LED-Embedded Pedestrian and School-Crossing Signs

FHWA-HRT-23-038.pdf (968.32 KB)

Publication Information

Publication Type:
Technical Report
Publication Number:

This report documents the research that was conducted as part of the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s) Evaluation of Low-Cost Safety Improvements Pooled Fund Study (ELCSI-PFS). FHWA established this PFS in 2005 to conduct research on the effectiveness of safety improvements identified by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 500 Guides, as part of the implementation of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials’ Strategic Highway Safety Plan. ELCSI-PFS studies provide a crash modification factor and benefit-cost analysis for each targeted safety strategy identified as a priority by member States of the PFS.

In the last decade, the number of pedestrian fatalities increased at a greater rate as compared to overall traffic fatalities. A traffic control treatment being used at pedestrian-crossing locations is the pedestrian- or school-crossing warning sign with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) embedded in the borders (called LED-Em in this report). The objective of this project was to determine the effectiveness of the LED-Em treatment. Included in the report are details of the methods used, and statistical findings of numerous test scenarios that support the researchers’ determinations. The results of the research indicate that the LED-Em treatment can be effective at increasing driver yielding on lower traffic volume roads, lower posted speed limit roads, and narrower roads. This report may be of interest to roadway safety professionals, local road operators, and pedestrian & school safety advocates.



Recommended citation: Federal Highway Administration, Driver Yielding with LED-Embedded Pedestrian- and School-Crossing Signs (Washington, DC:2023)

Publishing Date:
June 2023
Posting Date:
June 2023
Digital Object Identifier:
Fitzpatrick, Kay
Park, Eun Sug (ORCID: 0000-0001-6224-7007)
Johnson, Neal (ORCID: 0000-0001-9167-9132)
Falk, Katherine
Publishing Office:
Safety Data and Analysis Team
FHWA Program(s):
AMRP Program(s):
Safety Data and Analysis
FHWA Activities:
Traffic Control Device Pooled Fund
Subject Area:
Pedestrians and Bicyclists