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U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Transportation Icon United States Department of Transportation United States Department of Transportation

Ensuring Cooperative Driving Automation (CDA) and Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) Safety Through Infrastructure

FHWA-HRT-22-085.pdf (975.98 KB)

Publication Information

Publication Type:
Literature Review
Publication Number:

Vulnerable road users (VRUs), including pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and various micromobility users, account for a significant share of roadway fatalities. VRUs are at the most risk in urban areas, and, thus, urban areas are a focus area for implementing new transportation technologies. These new technologies include automated driving systems (ADS) and cooperative driving automation (CDA), which can potentially have positive or negative effects on VRU safety.


This literature review documents the potential impact of ADS-equipped vehicles and CDA technology on VRU safety and the potential role of infrastructure in facilitating safe interactions. This review discusses the factors that currently influence VRU collision rates, especially in high-risk urban areas. It also examines the capabilities and needs of ADS-equipped vehicles when interacting with VRUs and the additional positive and negative impacts that the deployment of CDA technologies are likely to have on VRU safety. Finally, the review includes a prioritized list of research gaps and safety risks that were identified by a panel of ADS and VRU experts who met to discuss the potential challenges associated with ADS-VRU interactions.



Recommended citation: Federal Highway Administration, Ensuring Cooperative Driving Automation (CDA) and Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) Safety Through Infrastructure (Washington, DC: 2022)

Publishing Date:
September 2022
Posting Date:
Digital Object Identifier:
Weaver, Starla (ORCID: 0000-0002-9559-8337)
Calvo, Jose (ORCID: 0000-0001-8820-702X)
Ahmed, Ananna (ORCID: 0000-0002-5353-508X)
Eisert, Jesse
Publishing Office:
Human Factors Team
FHWA Program(s):
Human Factors
AMRP Program(s):
Human Factors Analytics
FHWA Activities:
Pedestrian / Bicycle
Cooperative Automated Vehicles
Subject Area:
Pedestrians and Bicyclists