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United States Department of Transportation United States Department of Transportation

Public Roads - Summer 2021

Date:
Summer 2021
Issue No:
Vol. 85 No. 2
Publication Number:
FHWA-HRT-21-004
Table of Contents

Communication Product Updates

Communication Product Updates

by Lisa A. Shuler

Below are brief descriptions of communications products recently developed by the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Research, Development, and Technology. All of the reports are or will soon be available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). In some cases, limited copies of the communications products are available from FHWA's Research and Technology (R&T) Product Distribution Center (PDC).

Compiled by Lisa A. Shuler of FHWA's Office of Corporate Research, Technology, and Innovation Management

When ordering from NTIS, include the NTIS publication number (PB number) and the publication title. You also may visit the NTIS website at www.ntis.gov to order publications online. Call NTIS for current prices. For customers outside the United States, Canada, and Mexico, the cost is usually double the listed price. Address requests to:

National Technical Information Service
5301 Shawnee Road
Alexandria, VA 22312
Telephone: 703–605–6050
Toll-free number: 1–888–584–8332
Website: www.ntis.gov
Email: customerservice@ntis.gov

Requests for items available from the R&T Product Distribution Center should be addressed to:

R&T Product Distribution Center
Szanca Solutions/FHWA PDC
700 North 3rd Avenue
Altoona, PA 16601
Telephone: 814–239–1160
Fax: 814–239–2156
Email: report.center@dot.gov

For more information on R&T communications products available from FHWA, visit FHWA's website at www.fhwa.dot.gov, the FHWA Research Library at highways.dot.gov/resources/research-library/federal-highway-administration-research-library (or email fhwalibrary@dot.gov), or the National Transportation Library at ntl.bts.gov (or email library@dot.gov).

Contributing Factors for Focus Crash and Facility Types
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-20-052

Identifying and implementing systemic safety improvements leads not only to the reduction of crashes, but also to the reduction of the severity of crash incidents. Safety improvements are also bolstered by the identification of focus crash and facility types (FCFTs) and crash-contributing factors.

Cover of the report, Contributing Factors for Focus Crash and Facility Types.

A study by FHWA explored FCFTs and contributing factors and how improvements can directly impact incidents that are deemed prevalent but are somewhat disperse in their occurrence.

This report details several key goals of the study, which included identifying FCFTs, contributing factors, and possible low-cost safety measures to support systemic improvements, as well as identifying and applying quality data, statistical methodologies, the analysis process, and tools.

The publication is available at www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/20052/20052.pdf

High-Level Concept of Operations: Examination of the Relationships Between Transportation Systems Management and Operations Strategies and Cooperative Driving Automation
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-20-063

The convergence of transportation systems management and operations (TSMO) and cooperative driving automation (CDA) continues to advance FHWA's CARMA Platform℠. This report explores the high-level concept of operations, its support of CARMA, and the ties between TSMO and CDA.

Cover of the report, High-Level Concept of Operations: Examination of the Relationships Between Transportation Systems Management and Operations Strategies and Cooperative Driving Automation.

The research team examined several factors integral to the TSMO/CDA relationship, including traditional TSMO strategies relevant to transportation infrastructure; identification of key criteria that would likely be affected by implementation of CDA; and consideration of four groups of use cases, including basic travel, traffic incident management, road weather management, and work zone management.

The report also explores what technologies and processes may need to be modified or introduced to accommodate new roles and functions for TMSO, while examining the challenges associated with traditional vehicles and CDA-equipped vehicles sharing the Nation's roads.

The publication is available at www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/operations/20063/index.cfm.

Novel Highway Signs to Support Infrastructure-Based Motorcycle-Crash Countermeasures: Phase II
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-21-009 (TechBrief)
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-21-010 (Final Report)

Identifying safety countermeasures to prevent motorcycle crashes on the Nation's roadways remains a top priority for FHWA.

Cover of the Technical Brief "Novel Highway Signs to Support Infrastructure-Based Motorcycle-Crash Countermeasures: Phase II."

To improve motorcycle safety, FHWA recently conducted a human factors study on highway signage for motorcyclists. The research consisted of reviewing existing highway signs, developing an initial group of signs targeting motorcyclists, and advancing sample signs into a review phase. To ensure the clarity of messaging on the signs, FHWA also included nonmotorcyclists in its review phase. The research resulted in the identification of five novel signs that could significantly reduce motorcycle crashes.

The TechBrief is available at www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/21009/21099.pdf.

The final report is available at www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/21010/index.cfm.

Impacts of Automated Vehicles on Highway Infrastructure
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-21-015

Infrastructure owner-operators and highway agency policymakers have become increasingly interested in the impact of automated vehicles (AV) on roadways now and in the future.

Cover of the report, Impacts of Automated Vehicles on Highway Infrastructure.

A recent FHWA study explored the rise in interest in AV, and how that interest could impact infrastructure owner-operators as they begin integrating AV into their own transportation systems. The study included the examination of several factors that pertain to roadway infrastructure, including traffic control devices, intelligent transportation system devices, pavement and bridge structural mandatories, multimodal impacts, and additional roadside infrastructure, like guardrails.

This report also details AV and infrastructure deployment from a stakeholder perspective, providing recommendations and strategies for infrastructure owner-operators to implement in the future.

The publication is available at www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/operations/21015/index.cfm.

Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete Bridge Decks with Overlays
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-21-023

For decades, highway agencies have used concrete bridge deck overlays to repair bridges and extend their service life. However, concrete overlays deteriorate in different ways over time, making evaluations of underlying decks challenging.

Cover of the report, Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete Bridge Decks with Overlays.

A study by FHWA evaluated use of nine nondestructive evaluation technologies on seven varying types of overlays to identify defects in the concrete deck and debonding between deck and overlay.

This report documents and details the capabilities and limitations of each technique to detect certain types of defects in concrete decks with overlay.

The publication is available at www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/structures/bridge/21023/21023.pdf

Developing Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation Tools for Connected Automated Vehicle Applications: A Case Study on SR—99 in California
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-21-039

A recent study conducted by FHWA examined the use of automation technology in a real-world setting—a 13-mile (21-kilometer) portion of SR—99 near Sacramento, CA—that is a heavily traveled commuter corridor. The traffic simulation study examined how the implementation of vehicles equipped with cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) could impact traffic flow, congestion, and fuel consumption.

Cover of the report, Developing Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation Tools for Connected Automated Vehicle Applications: A Case Study on SR 99 in California.

The research team examined scenarios with heavy traffic congestion during morning peak travel, 6:30 a.m. to 9 a.m., with several on-ramp bottleneck locations also included in the case study parameters. One of several key findings from the research shows that when CACC penetration was 100 percent, the busy commuter corridor enabled approximately 30 percent more traffic to enter the facility, with no drop in travel time.

The publication is available at www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/operations/21039/index.cfm.