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FHWA Highway Safety Programs


  1. Library of Congress, "Who Invented the Automobile?" (July 24, 2011).
  2. Transport Research Centre, "Speed Management," Joint Organisation for Economic Cooperation Development and European Conference of Ministers of Transport, ITRD Number E130442 (Paris, France: 2006).
  3. National Forum on Speeding Summary Report Strategies for Reducing Speeding-Related Fatalities and Injuries, NatForumSpeeding/images/SpeedingForum.pdf.
  4. Locomotive Act 1861, (August 26, 2011).
  5. Department of Transport, "A Brief History of Registration," Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (September 6, 2011).
  6. European Transport Safety Council news release, "Polish Presidency of the EU: Time to Start Work towards the 2020 Road Safety Target," (July 4, 2011).
  7. R. Elvik, P. Christensen, and A. Amundsen, "Speed and Road Accidents: An Evaluation of the Power Model," The Institute of Transport Economics (TOI), TOI Report 740/2004 (December 2004).
  8. S.B. White and A. C. Nelson, "Some Effects of Measurement Errors in Estimating Involvement Rate as a Function of Deviation from Mean Traffic Speed," Journal of Safety Research, 2 (1970): 67-72.
  9. E. Hauer, "Speed and Crash Risk: An Opinion," (unpublished manuscript dated September 8, 2003, University of Toronto, Department of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario, Canada).
  10. G.A. Davis, "Is the Claim that 'Variance Kills' an Ecological Fallacy?" (paper 01-0530 from the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies Annual Meeting, Washington DC (available on CD-Rom)).
  11. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies (TRB), "Managing Speed: Review of Current Practice for Setting and Enforcing Speed Limits," TRB Special Report 254, National Research Council (Washington, DC: 1998).
  12. National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances. Uniform Vehicle Code Millennium Edition. (Evanston, Illinois: 2000).
  13. Y. Yang., "Optimal Speed Limit for Shared-Use Roadways," (Doctoral diss., New Jersey Institute of Technology, July 2005).
  14. Speed Limits New Zealand, Guidelines for Setting Speed Limits and Procedures for Calculating Speed Limits.
  15. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition
  16. K. Fitzpatrick, P. Carlson, M.A. Brewer, M.D. Wooldridge, and S.P. Miaou, Design Speed, Operating Speed and Posted Speed Practices, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 504 (Washington, DC: 2003).
  17. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Survey of Speed Zoning Practices, An Informational Report (Washington, DC: 2001).
  18. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Massachusetts Highway Department, Procedures for Speed Zoning on State and Municipal Roadways (2005).
  19. Texas Department of Transportation, Procedures for Establishing Speed Zones (November 2006).
  20. Maine Department of Transportation, "How Are Speed Limits Set?" howlimit.php (July 13, 2011).
  21. Illinois Department of Transportation, "Policy on Establishing and Posting Speed Limits on the State Highway System" (March 2011).
  22. Transportation Association of Canada, Canadian Guidelines for Establishing Posted Speed Limits (2009).
  23. National Cooperative Highway Research Program for the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, An Expert System for Recommending Speed Limits in Speed Zones, Research Results Digest 318 (May 2007).
  24. J.G. Bared, P. Edara, and T. Kim, "Safety Impact of Interchange Spacing on Urban Freeways," (paper presented at the 2006 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies (January 2006).
  25. C.V. Zegeer, J. Hummer, D. Reinfurt, L. Herf, and W. Hunter, Safety Effects of Cross-Section Design for Two-Lane Roads, Volume I-Final Report, FHWA-RD-87/008 (October 1987).
  26. Federal Highway Administration, Office of Operations, Benefits of Access Management brochure, FHWA-OP-03-066
  27. R. Elvik, "Optimal Speed Limits: The Limits of Optimality Models," Transportation Research Record 1818 (2002): 32-38.
  28. J. Langford, "Setting Speed Limits for a Safe System," Monash University Accident Research Centre (August 12, 2011).
  29. Ohio Department of Transportation. Traffic Engineering Manual, Part 12, Zones and Studies (Revised July 18, 2008).
  30. Florida Department of Transportation, Speed Zoning for Highways, Roads, and Streets in Florida, Manual Number 750-010-002, 2010 Edition.
  31. Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Establishment of Speed Limits and Zones, Policy and Procedure Manual (June 2000).
  32. Roads and Traffic Authority NSW, NSW Speed Zoning Guidelines, Version 3.0, Safer Roads Branch (2009).
  33. Federal Highway Administration, Standard Highway Signs, 2004 Edition
  34. Washington Department of Transportation, Traffic Manual, Chapter 2, Signs (March 2002).
  35. Montana Department of Transportation, Montana Traffic Engineering Manual, Chapter 40-Speed Studies (November 2007).
  36. V.W. Inman, S. Miller, S. Tackett, J.A. Molino, and A.Z. Zineddin, "Exploration of Appropriate Intervals for Locating Speed Limit Signs," Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting CD-ROM (2008).
  37. Alberta Transportation, Driver (Speed) Feedback Signs, Recommended Practice, Government of Alberta, Canada (December 2010).
  38. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Methodologies for the Determination of Advisory Speeds, Publication No. IR-132E (Washington, DC: 2010).
  39. K. Fitzpatrick, M. Brewer, K. Obeng-Boampong, E.S. Park, and N. Trout, Speeds in School Zones, Report No. FHWA/TX-09/0-5470-1, Texas Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System (College Station, Texas: February 2009).
  40. VicRoads, "School Speed Zones" SchoolSpeedZones.htm (August 28, 2011).
  41. Ontario Ministry of Transportation, Ontario Traffic Manual - Book 5 - Regulatory Signs, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  42. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Speed Enforcement Program Guidelines, Report No. DOT HS 810 915 (March 2008).
  43. Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Highway Operations, Traffic Engineering Section, Wisconsin Statewide Speed Management Guidelines, (Madison, Wisconsin: June 2009).
  44. Institute of Transportation Engineers. Manual of Transportation Engineering Studies (Washington, DC: 2000).
  45. National Motorists Association, Speed Limits, NMA's Model Speed Zoning Law
  46. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center for Statistics and Analysis, Traffic Safety Facts 2007, Data: Speeding, DOT-HS-810-998 (Washington, DC: 2009).
  47. C.N. Kloeden, G. Ponte, and A.J. McLean, Travelling Speed and the Risk of Crash Involvement on Rural Roads. Australian Transport Safety Bureau, CR 204 (Canberra, Australia: 2001).
  48. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Federal Highway Administration, Speed Enforcement Camera Systems Operational Guidelines, Report No. DOT HS 810 916 (March 2008).
  49. Federal Highway Administration, Office of Safety, Procedures for Setting Advisory Speeds on Curves, FHWA Document No. FHWA-SA-11-22
  50. G. Forbes, Speed Reduction Techniques for Rural High-to-Low Speed Transitions, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Synthesis Report 412, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies (2011).
  51. A. Edgar, "Speed Zoning Based on the Road Environment," ITE 2005 Annual Meeting and Exhibit Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers (2005).
  52. E. Hauer, "Speed and Safety," Transportation Research Record 2103, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies (2009): 10-17.