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U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Transportation Icon United States Department of Transportation United States Department of Transportation
FHWA Highway Safety Programs

Guide for Scalable Risk Assessment Methods for Pedestrians and Bicyclists

fhwasa18032.pdf (5.08 MB)


This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of this document.

The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official policy of the U.S. Department of Transportation. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.
2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle
5. Report Date
July 2018
6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)
Shawn Turner, Ipek Sener, Michael Martin, L.D. White, Subasish Das, Robert Hampshire, Mike Colety, Kay Fitzpatrick, and Ravi Wijesundera
8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station, TX 77843-3135
University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.
DFTH6116D00004, TTI Task
Order #2
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Safety
1200 New Jersey Ave SE
Washington, DC 20590
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Task 4 Guide:
March 2017 - July 2018
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes
Government Task Manager: Tamara Redmon
16. Abstract

This guide describes scalable risk assessment methods for pedestrians and bicyclists, wherein risk is a measure of the probability of a crash to occur given exposure to potential crash events. This guide outlines eight sequential steps to develop risk values at various desired geographic scales, and describes the scope and nature of each step, including any guiding principles.

Exposure to risk is an integral element of risk, and as such, an integral element of the pedestrian and bicyclist risk assessment methods in this guide. Exposure is a measure of the number of potential opportunities for a crash to occur, and is often directly related to the number of people who walk and bike. This guide provides information on analytic methods to estimate pedestrian and bicyclist exposure, and identifies other relevant guides and resources that provide supplemental information for exposure estimation. Depending upon the desired geographic scale, one or more of these three analytic methods can be used to estimate pedestrian and bicyclist exposure: 1) site counts; 2) travel demand estimation models (several different types); and, 3) travel surveys.

17. Key Words
Pedestrian and bicyclist risk assessment, exposure, geographic scale, risk factors, pedestrian and bicyclist counts, demand estimation, national travel surveys
18. Distribution Statement
19. Security Classif.
(of this report)

20. Security Classif.
(of this page)

21. No. of Pages
22. Price